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SWOT Analysis is a useful technique for understanding Strengths and Weaknesses, and for identifying both the Opportunities open to you and the Threats you face.

Used in a business context, it helps you carve a sustainable niche in your market


  • What advantages does your organization have?
  • What do you do better than anyone else?
  • What unique or lowest-cost resources can you draw upon that others can’t?
  • What do people in your market see as your strengths?
  • What factors mean that you “get the sale”?
  • What is your organization’s Unique Selling Proposition (USP)?

Consider your strengths from both an internal perspective, and from the point of view of your customers and people in your market.

Also, if you’re having any difficulty identifying strengths, try writing down a list of your organization’s characteristics. Some of these will hopefully be strengths!

When looking at your strengths, think about them in relation to your competitors. For example, if all of your competitors provide high quality products, then a high quality production process is not a strength in your organization’s market, it’s a necessity.


  • What could you improve?
  • What should you avoid?
  • What are people in your market likely to see as weaknesses?
  • What factors lose you sales?

Again, consider this from an internal and external basis: Do other people seem to perceive weaknesses that you don’t see? Are your competitors doing any better than you?

It’s best to be realistic now, and face any unpleasant truths as soon as possible.


  • What good opportunities can you spot?
  • What interesting trends are you aware of?

Useful opportunities can come from such things as:

  • Changes in technology and markets on both a broad and narrow scale.
  • Changes in government policy related to your field.
  • Changes in social patterns, population profiles, lifestyle changes, and so on.
  • Local events.


  • What obstacles do you face?
  • What are your competitors doing?
  • Are quality standards or specifications for your job, products or services changing?
  • Is changing technology threatening your position?
  • Do you have bad debt or cash-flow problems?
  • Could any of your weaknesses seriously threaten your business?

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l análisis DAFO, también conocido como análisis FODA, es una metodología de estudio de la situación de una empresa o un proyecto, analizando sus características internas (Debilidades y Fortalezas) y su situación externa (Amenazas y Oportunidades) en una matriz cuadrada. Proviene de las siglas en inglés SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities yThreats).

Es una herramienta para conocer la situación real en que se encuentra una organización, empresa o proyecto, y planear una estrategia de futuro.1

Durante la etapa de planeamiento estratégico y a partir del análisis DAFO se deben contestar cada una de las siguientes preguntas:

  • ¿Cómo se puede destacar cada fortaleza?
  • ¿Cómo se puede disfrutar cada oportunidad?
  • ¿Cómo se puede defender cada debilidad?
  • ¿Cómo se puede detener cada amenaza?

Este recurso fue creado a principios de la década de los setenta y produjo una revolución en el campo de la estrategia empresarial. El objetivo del análisis DAFO es determinar las ventajas competitivas de la empresa bajo análisis y la estrategia genérica a emplear por la misma que más le convenga en función de sus características propias y de las del mercado en que se mueve.

El análisis consta de cuatro pasos: